|Slide 1: This
slide presents the general graphic representation for classical
The diagram shows that the presence or occurrence of a Stimulus
results in a particular Response.
A key point about classical conditioning is that the individual learns via the association of a stimulus and a response, not by "thinking" (i.e., cognitive processing).
|Slide 2: The slide shows that the presence or occurrence of Unconditioned Stimulus leads to an Unconditioned Response and that the presence or occurrence of a Conditioned Stimulus leads to a Conditioned Response.|
|Slide 3: Classical
is illustrated by the work of Pavlov. A dog is conditioned during
its life to salivate (response) in the
of food (stimulus). This stimulus
relationship is the "unconditioned" state. It is a state that the
dog brings to the situation (i.e., it already existed).
The intent is to condition the dog to the sound of the bell (i.e., the "to be" Conditioned Stimulus) so that the dog salivates (i.e., the "to be" Conditioned Response) when it hears the bell.
Food is presented repeatedly to the dog in the presence of the sound of a bell. In time, the dog comes to associate the sound of a bell with the presence of food. The sound of a bell, alone, will eventually cause the dog to salivate, if conditioning has taken place.
|Slide 4: Marketers
Classical Conditioning in many ways. One of the classic examples
relates to the repositioning of Marlboro cigarettes as a man's vs. a
cigarette. The company knew that when males (and females) thought
of a cowboy (Stimulus), they conjured up
image of a masculine individual (Response).
Marlboro used the image of a cowboy with its brand. Eventually,
people thought of Marlboro cigarettes, the masculine image came to
Marlboro cigarettes was therefore successful in linking the meaning of
"Marlboro" with masculine. Hence, Marlboro cigarettes became a
vs. a woman's cigarette.
In the Canadian market, DuMaurier cigarettes used to be thought of as a cigarette for women. Player's and Export (Export A) cigarettes were cigarettes for men.
|Slide 5: Another
example of the
use of Classical Conditioning is with family branding. A company
that has created a strong, positive image for one of it's products will
use that the same brand name or the corporate name with new products.
The original brand name or the corporate name (e.g., Campbell's, General Foods, General Mills) (Stimulus) is linked or given to (i.e., associated with) the new product with the intent that the same positive image (Response) will occur when consumer considers the new product.
The original brand and the associated image are the Unconditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Response respectively. The new product and the desired response are the "to be" Conditioned Stimulus and the "to be" Conditioned Response respectively.
The following example illustrates this situation.
|Slide 6: Sometimes,
a particular stimulus leads to a response that is negative in
In this case, it would be unwise for a company to use the same brand
or the corporate name when promoting a new product. Yugo
(Yugoslovia) and Lada cars (Russia) both were thought of as poor
cars in Canada.
Classical conditioning would therefore indicate that, until the quality of the original cars improved, attempts to successfully sell other products would be difficult.
After the second world war, Japanese products faced the same fate. Japanese manufacturers, however, have since turned things around. What is your response when you hear the name: Sony.
|Slide 7: Classical
Conditioning can also explain our response to objects like a
For whatever reason, most people respond negatively when seeing a
Marketers can use such a relationship to direct individuals away from
behaviour or products.
The "Skull & Crossbones" image used on products to indicate that the product was poisonous. However, it was soon realized that kids thought of pirates (Response)[fun and exciting] when they saw such a symbol (Stimulus). Such a symbol would attract children to the product.
Since the intent was to keep children away from such products, the skull and crossbones symbol was changed to a newly created symbol, Mr. Yuk. The Mr. Yuk symbol was soon learned to stand for danger. Products that were associated with the Mr. Yuk symbol (Stimulus) assumed the same meaning [i.e., keep away, fear] (Response).
Another interesting application of Classical Conditioning deals with
use of positive and negative communicators (re: Sleeper Effect).
Companies pay big bucks to use celebrities (etc.) in ads to influence
market because of what they stand for (i.e., positive
O.J. Simpson appeared in Hertz Rent-A-Car ads before his murder trial,
because of his high credibility. Associating a product with such
a person reflects the attempt to transfer the image of the celebrity to
However, when a celebrity becomes a negative communicator, as was the case for O.J., it would be unwise for a company to use such an individual in the ads, since the new perceived image of the celebrity could transfer to the product. In such a situation, the communicator would be dropped from all ads and association with the product/company.
|Operant Conditioning [Instrumental Learning]|
|Slide 9: Operant
is associated with the work by B. F. Skinner (shocking animal to get
Punishment: Inflicting a negative state upon the individual (e.g., get speeding ticket for speeding; getting a needle from a doctor; root canal work; paying a higher price than expected for a product; buying shoes that are too small; eating tainted food and getting sick; trying a product for the first time and hating the taste of it).
|Slide 10: Schedule
of Reinforcement for Operant Conditioning
Variable Interval: Reinforcement will occur on average after a fixed time period passes (e.g., 5 minutes), but actual time interval will vary (e.g., 2 - 10 minutes) but average the identified time period.
|Slide 11: Cognitive
Vicarious learning means one learns not by "behaving," but rather by
watching others (i.e., learn by the actions of others).